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   2009| October-December  | Volume 19 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 24, 2009

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Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis
Richa Trivedi, Sona Saksena, Rakesh K Gupta
October-December 2009, 19(4):256-265
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57205  PMID:19881100
Tuberculosis (TB) in any form is a devastating disease, which in its most severe form involves the central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of CNS TB is necessary for appropriate treatment to reduce this morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnostic techniques involve culture and immunological tests of the tissue and biofluids, which are time-consuming and may delay definitive management. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnosis of neurotuberculosis, with MRI offering greater inherent sensitivity and specificity than CT scan. In addition to conventional MRI imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are also being evaluated for better tissue characterization in CNS TB. The current article reviews the role of various MRI techniques in the diagnosis and management of CNS TB.
  27,725 5,797 26
Reinke's edema
Sanjay Jain, Ravi Varma, Biswajyoti Hazarika, Sultan Pradhan, Asif Momin
October-December 2009, 19(4):296-297
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57212  PMID:19881107
A unique imaging dilemma is presented where vocal fold thickening due to Reinke's edema mimicked tumor invasion of the vocal cords in a known case of thyroid malignancy.
  8,731 2,264 -
Evaluation of breast calcifications
Yojana V Nalawade
October-December 2009, 19(4):282-286
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57208  PMID:19881103
Various patterns of calcifications occur in the breast; some benign, some malignant. A knowledge of these patterns on mammography helps in accurate interpretation and management.
  8,245 1,476 1
How to improve your breast cancer program: Standardized reporting using the new American College of Radiology Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System
Haydee Ojeda-Fournier, Judy Q Nguyen
October-December 2009, 19(4):266-277
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57206  PMID:19881101
In the USA, the use of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (ACR BI-RADS) has served not only as a quality assurance tool and guide to standardizing breast imaging reports but has also improved communication between referring physicians, researchers, and patients. In fact, in the USA, the Mammography Quality Standards Act of 1997 requires that all mammograms be assigned a BI-RADS category based on the finding of most concern. In this manuscript, we aim to review the recommendations provided in the 4 th edition of the ACR BI-RADS for mammography, USG, and MRI. We also review the major controversies surrounding the use of ACR BI-RADS .
  7,022 1,531 -
Role of diffusion MRI in characterizing benign and malignant breast lesions
Lalitha Palle, Balaji Reddy
October-December 2009, 19(4):287-290
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57209  PMID:19881104
Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of MRI based diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for characterizing breast lesions in Indian patients. Materials and Methods : This prospective analysis was performed between October 2006 and June 2008. It includes 200 patients between the ages of 16 and 80 years with solid breast lesions greater than 1 cm in diameter. Of these 200 patients, 80 underwent breast MRI with contrast and DWI. One hundred and twenty patients had only DWI as they had come only for sonomammography. A total of 280 lesions were detected. ADC values were calculated for all the lesions and the highest and lowest values of ADC for benign and malignant lesions were identified. Finally, we compared our findings with those of previous studies. Results : Two hundred and eight lesions were categorized as benign and 72 lesions were categorized as malignant based on the ADC values. Based on previous data, lesions with ADC values from 1.3 to 1.5 mm 2 /s were considered benign where as lesions with ADC values ranging between 0.85 and1.1 mm 2 /s were considered malignant. Two lesions whose ADC values were in the benign range were proven to be malignant tumors after surgery. This method of using ADC values for the detection of malignant lesions showed a sensitivity of 97.22% and a specificity of 100%. The positive predictive value was 100%. Conclusion : DWI is a useful technique for characterizing breast tumors, especially for lesions that cannot be adequately characterized by ultrasonography and routine magnetic resonance imaging.
  6,705 1,479 12
Case Report: Magnetic resonance imaging in rabies encephalitis
Arekapudi Subramanyeswara Rao, Dandu Ravi Varma, Mamidi Venkata Chalapathi Rao, Surat Mohandas
October-December 2009, 19(4):301-304
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57214  PMID:19881109
Rabies encephalitis is an invariably fatal disease characterized by typical clinical symptoms. Although the diagnosis of this condition can be made on the basis of the patient's history and the classical clinical presentation, neuroimaging may still play a role, especially for establishing an early diagnosis in cases with atypical presentations or when the history of animal bite is not forthcoming. We report the MRI findings in a case of furious rabies encephalitis and describe the utility of diffusion imaging in its diagnosis.
  5,268 837 4
Pictorial essay: Mammography of the male breast
Manju Bala Popli, V Popli, P Bahl, Y Solanki
October-December 2009, 19(4):278-281
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57207  PMID:19881102
Mammography is an imaging modality that is widely perceived to be of use only in women for the detection and diagnosis of breast pathologies. Here, we present a pictorial essay on the mammographic spectrum of male breast pathologies.
  4,521 1,150 1
Web review: Contrast media in radiology and imaging
IK Indrajit
October-December 2009, 19(4):322-324
  4,503 1,161 -
Case Report: Intracranial peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor - Ewing's sarcoma of dura with transcalvarial-subgaleal extension: An unusual radiological presentation
Shahina Bano, Sachchida Nand Yadav, Umesh Chandra Garga
October-December 2009, 19(4):305-307
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57215  PMID:19881110
The occurrence of the intracranial, peripheral, primitive, neuroectodermal tumor, Ewing's sarcoma (pPNET-ES) of the dura, is very rare. Immunophenotypical as well as genetic analyses play key roles in its diagnosis and differentiation from central PNET. We describe here the CT scan and MRI findings of an interesting case of intracranial pPNET-ES arising from the anterior falx cerebri with a trancalvarial-subgaleal extension.
  4,508 630 10
Case Report: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis
Amit A Karandikar, S Pushparajan, Madhavan N Unni, R Srinivas
October-December 2009, 19(4):314-317
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57218  PMID:19881113
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare genetic disorder. We present and discuss the clinical, radiological, and histopathologic findings in a 36-year-old woman who had juvenile cataract, childhood diarrhea, mental retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and bilateral Achilles tendon xanthomas. She was thoroughly investigated radiologically and biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of xanthomas.
  3,973 765 1
Case Report: CT diagnosis of thymic remnant cyst/thymopharyngeal duct cyst
Bipin V Daga, VA Chaudhary, VB Dhamangaokar
October-December 2009, 19(4):293-295
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57211  PMID:19881106
A 4-year-old boy presented with history of left anterolateral neck swelling since birth. He was clinically diagnosed to have a branchial cleft cyst. A CT scan revealed findings suggestive of a thymic remnant cyst. The lesion was excised and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology.
  4,041 606 6
Case Report: CSF pseudocyst in the breast
L Dayananda, GA Karthik, DG Santhosh Kumar, Yameen
October-December 2009, 19(4):291-292
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57210  PMID:19881105
A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pseudocyst can rarely occur in the breast. It usually results from damage to a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt during a mammogram or augmentation breast surgery. If fluid collection is seen in close proximity to the VP shunt, it should raise the suspicion of a CSF pseudocyst.
  3,947 615 2
Case Report: Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele with a clinically silent lateral bony defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid
Anoop Kumar Pandey
October-December 2009, 19(4):311-313
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57217  PMID:19881112
Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele is the least common type of temporal encephalocele. It commonly presents with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in adults. This article presents the CT cisternography and MRI findings of one such case, which also had an associated clinically silent defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid on the same side.
  3,693 582 1
PubMed, writing and research
Bhavin Jankharia
October-December 2009, 19(4):255-255
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57204  PMID:19881099
  3,323 863 -
Case report: Ocular malformation with a 'double globe' appearance
Usha R Kim, Vipul Arora, Akash D Shah, KG Srinivasan
October-December 2009, 19(4):298-300
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57213  PMID:19881108
Colobomatous cyst of the orbit is a rare congenital cystic malformation associated with ocular maldevelopment. Usually, the cyst is associated with a microphthalmic globe. We present a rare case of a unilateral large colobomatous cyst associated with a normal-sized globe, giving the appearance of a double globe on imaging.
  3,380 682 -
Case Report: Carotid-cavernous fistula due to aneurysmal rupture in a case of aortoaortitis with bilateral giant internal carotid artery aneurysms
Sandeep Sharma, Subhash Kumar, Arvind Nanda, Edmond Moses
October-December 2009, 19(4):308-310
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57216  PMID:19881111
Takayasu aortoarteritis (TA) rarely affects the nervous system, but when it does, it usually manifests as cerebral ischemia or stroke. These strokes have mainly been attributed to stenotic extracranial vessels. Stenoses of intracranial vessels, although rare in TA, can occur due to either embolization into the vessel or because of the vasculitic process itself. Intracranial aneurysms are very rare in patients with TA. Bilateral cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms are rarer. They have been reported following radiation therapy and in association with fibromuscular dysplasia and juvenile Paget disease. Bilateral mycotic intracavernous aneurysms also occur. Bilateral giant cavernous ICA aneurysms with carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) consequent to rupture into the cavernous sinus in a case of TA are extremely unusual. We report a case that fulfilled both American College of Rheumatology and European League against Rheumatology criteria for TA. The patient had bilateral cavernous sinus giant aneurysms and CCF because the right-sided aneurysm had ruptured and was leaking into the cavernous sinus.
  3,255 621 -
Computer networks in radiology: An introduction
Rochan Pant
October-December 2009, 19(4):318-321
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.57219  PMID:19881114
  2,604 705 -
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