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Guidelines for ultrasound owners and owners of clinics, diagnostic centres, nursing homes and hospitals
Sanjeev Mani
April-June 2012, 22(2):125-128
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.101102  PMID:23162256
These are guidelines that are required for ultrasound owners for registration and use of ultrasound machines and are applicable across India. A brief description of the violations and penalties has also been listed.
  151,648 7,266 -
Cysts and cystic-appearing lesions of the knee: A pictorial essay
Nicholas A Telischak, Jim S Wu, Ronald L Eisenberg
April-June 2014, 24(2):182-191
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.134413  PMID:25024531
Cysts and cystic-appearing lesions around the knee are common and can be divided into true cysts (synovial cysts, bursae, ganglia, and meniscal cysts) and lesions that mimic cysts (hematomas, seromas, abscesses, vascular lesions, and neoplasms). The specific anatomic location of the cystic lesion often permits the correct diagnosis. In difficult cases, identifying a cystic mass in an atypical location and/or visualizing internal solid contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should raise concern for a neoplasm and the need for further evaluation and intervention.
  140,564 8,231 -
Protection against radiation hazards : Regulatory bodies, safety norms, does limits and protection devices
SB Grover, J Kumar, A Gupta, L Khanna
April-June 2002, 12(2):157-167
There are various Regulatory Bodies at the international and National level, which lay down norms for radiation protection. These are the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) the National Commission for Radiation Protection (NCRP) in America, and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. These bodies recommend norms for permissible doses of radiation from X ray tubes and the shielding required for the walls of an X ray room. Data is also available from the work of Investigators regarding the room shielding required in a CT suite. The recommended lead equivalent in shielding apparel to be worm by radiation workers is 0.5 mm. The regulatory bodies also lay down safe dose limits for radiation workers and for the general public. The duties of the Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) are also specified by the regulatory bodies, as are the radiation surveillance and radiation safety programmers.
  143,478 2 2
Imaging of skull base: Pictorial essay
Abhijit A Raut, Prashant S Naphade, Ashish Chawla
October-December 2012, 22(4):305-316
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.111485  PMID:23833423
The skull base anatomy is complex. Numerous vital neurovascular structures pass through multiple channels and foramina located in the base skull. With the advent of computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), accurate preoperative lesion localization and evaluation of its relationship with adjacent neurovascular structures is possible. It is imperative that the radiologist and skull base surgeons are familiar with this complex anatomy for localizing the skull base lesion, reaching appropriate differential diagnosis, and deciding the optimal surgical approach. CT and MRI are complementary to each other and are often used together for the demonstration of the full disease extent. This article focuses on the radiological anatomy of the skull base and discusses few of the common pathologies affecting the skull base.
  129,320 11,317 -
Pictorial essay: Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses on multidetector computed tomography-How does it help FESS surgeons?
Uma Devi Murali Appavoo Reddy, Bhawna Dev
October-December 2012, 22(4):317-324
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.111486  PMID:23833424
With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), imaging of paranasal sinuses prior to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has become mandatory. Multiplanar imaging, particularly coronal reformations, offers precise information regarding the anatomy of the sinuses and its variations, which is an essential requisite before surgery.
  118,047 15,259 -
Imaging in oral cancers
Supreeta Arya, Devendra Chaukar, Prathamesh Pai
July-September 2012, 22(3):195-208
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.107182  PMID:23599568
Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist.
  113,709 16,907 1
Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay
Jennifer Ni Mhuircheartaigh, Yu-Ching Lin, Jim S Wu
July-September 2014, 24(3):225-236
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.137026  PMID:25114385
Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety.
  111,145 5,201 -
A pictorial essay: Radiology of lines and tubes in the intensive care unit
Sanjay N Jain
July-September 2011, 21(3):182-190
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.85365  PMID:22013292
A variety of devices are used in the intensive care unit for long durations. Each one of them is a double-edged sword: intended to save life, but life-threatening if in the wrong place. Hence, it is important to periodically check that these devices are correctly placed so as to prevent complications. The portable chest radiograph is of tremendous value in this context.
  93,054 13,243 -
MRI evaluation of pathologies affecting the corpus callosum: A pictorial essay
Aamish Z Kazi, Priscilla C Joshi, Abhimanyu B Kelkar, Mangal S Mahajan, Amit S Ghawate
October-December 2013, 23(4):321-332
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.125604  PMID:24604936
The corpus callosum is a midline cerebral structure and has a unique embryological development pattern. In this article, we describe the pathophysiology and present imaging findings of various typical/atypical conditions affecting the corpus callosum. Since many of these pathologies have characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their therapeutic approaches are poles apart, ranging from medical to surgical, the neuroradiologist should be well aware of them.
  89,663 4,152 -
Imaging in laryngeal cancers
Varsha M Joshi, Vineet Wadhwa, Suresh K Mukherji
July-September 2012, 22(3):209-226
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.107183  PMID:23599569
Imaging plays an important complementary role to clinical examination and endoscopic biopsy in the evaluation of laryngeal cancers. A vast majority of these cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Cross-sectional imaging with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of the larynx and the characteristic patterns of submucosal tumor extension. CT, MRI and more recently PET-CT, also provide vital information about the status of cervical nodal disease, systemic metastases and any synchronous malignancies. Additionally, certain imaging-based parameters like tumor volume and cartilaginous abnormalities have been used to predict the success of primary radiotherapy or surgery in these patients. Integration of radiological findings with endoscopic evaluation greatly improves the pretherapeutic staging accuracy of laryngeal cancers, and significantly impacts the choice of management strategies in these patients. Imaging studies also help in the post-therapeutic surveillance and follow-up of patients with laryngeal cancers. In this article, we review the currently used laryngeal imaging techniques and protocols, the key anatomic structures relevant to tumor spread and the characteristic patterns of submucosal extension and invasion of laryngeal cancer. The role of CT, MRI and PET-CT in the evaluation of patients with laryngeal SCC and the impact of imaging findings on prognosis and clinical management is also discussed.
  79,451 13,433 -
Cystic masses of neck: A pictorial review
Mahesh Kumar Mittal, Amita Malik, Binit Sureka, Brij Bhushan Thukral
October-December 2012, 22(4):334-343
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.111488  PMID:23833426
Cystic masses of neck consist of a variety of pathologic entities. The age of presentation and clinical examination narrow down the differential diagnosis; however, imaging is essential for accurate diagnosis and pretreatment planning. Ultrasound is often used for initial evaluation. Computed tomography (CT) provides additional information with regard to the extent and internal composition of the mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a supplementary role for confirmation of diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging may be needed in some cases for preoperative assessment.
  85,856 5,530 -
Sonographic assessment of fetal abdominal cystic lesions : A pictorial essay
Rajesh Agarwal
October-December 1999, 9(4):169-182
  85,940 2 5
MRI in white matter diseases - clinico radiological correlation
BN Lakhkar, M Aggarwal, JR John
January-March 2002, 12(1):43-50
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of MRI as an investigative modality in white matter diseases and to document its value in early diagnosis and management. This was done by studying the MR appearances of various white matter diseases encountered in our hospital with special reference to multiple sclerosis and correlating it with the clinical presentation. In addition, the most common diseases among them were identified. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with a strong clinical suspicion of demyelinating disorder were evaluated by MRI using 0.5 Tesla (Signa Contour, GE) scanner in a prospective study period of 2 years. Images were obtained in sagittal, axial and coronal planes using SE T1, PD and T2 and FLAIR sequences. Slice thickness of 5mm, FOV of 24 x 24 and 256 x 192 matrix were used. Results: Demyelinating foci were demonstrated with a high degree of accuracy on MR as prolonged T1 and T2 relaxation times, the site of the lesion varying in different disorders. Multiple sclerosis accounted for the majority of cases (37.5 percent) followed by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (15 percent). Other causes like infections, toxic causes, periventricular leukomalacia and leukodystrophies comprised the remainder of the cases. In multiple sclerosis, majority of the patients presented in the third decade of life with a definite female preponderance (M:F-1:2). The most common symptom and site of involvement were visual impairment (73.3 percent) and periventricular area (80 percent) respectively. Conclusion: MRI due to its excellent gray-white matter resolution is very sensitive in detecting subtle demyelination, the sensitivity being still further enhanced by FLAIR sequences. The present study concludes that MRI, in correlation with the clinical signs and symptoms is an ideal modality in early diagnosis of white matter diseases and aids in the early institution of therapy so that the curable conditions among them can be treated.
  72,220 1 2
Pictorial essays : Ultrasound features of thyroid and parathyroid lesions
SB Patel, SR Shah, KG Goswami, HB Patel
April-June 2005, 15(2):211-216
  65,114 5,677 3
Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part I
Suleman Merchant, Alpa Bharati, Neesha Merchant
January-March 2013, 23(1):46-63
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.113615  PMID:23986618
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide scourge and its incidence appears to be increasing due to various factors, such as the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The insidious onset and non-specific constitutional symptoms of genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) often lead to delayed diagnosis and rapid progression to a non-functioning kidney. Due to hematogenous dissemination of TB, there is a potential risk of involvement of the contralateral kidney too. Imaging plays an important role in the making of a timely diagnosis and in the planning of treatment, and thus helps to avoid complications such as renal failure. Imaging of GUTB still remains a challenge, mainly on account of the dearth of literature, especially related to the use of the newer modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This two-part article is a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and imaging findings in renal TB. Various imaging features of GUTB are outlined, from the pathognomonic lobar calcification on plain film, to finer early changes such as loss of calyceal sharpness and papillary necrosis on intravenous urography (IVU); to uneven caliectasis and urothelial thickening, in the absence of renal pelvic dilatation, as well as the hitherto unreported 'lobar caseation' on ultrasonography (USG). Well-known complications of GUTB such as sinus tracts, fistulae and amyloidosis are described, along with the relatively less well-known complications such as tuberculous interstitial nephritis (TIN), which may remain hidden because of its 'culture negative' nature and thus lead to renal failure. The second part of the article reviews the computed tomography (CT) and MRI features of GUTB and touches upon future imaging techniques along with imaging of TB in transplant recipients and in immunocompromised patients.
  63,269 7,063 -
Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging
Rajul Rastogi, Sumeet Bhargava, Govindarajan Janardan Mallarajapatna, Sudhir Kumar Singh
October-December 2012, 22(4):325-333
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.111487  PMID:23833425
Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands.
  62,427 5,986 2
DICOM, HL7 and IHE: A basic primer on Healthcare Standards for Radiologists
IK Indrajit, BS Verma
April-June 2007, 17(2):66-68
  60,690 6,239 3
Neonatal neurosonography: A pictorial essay
Venkatraman Bhat, Varun Bhat
October-December 2014, 24(4):389-400
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.143901  PMID:25489132
Neurosonography is a simple, established non-invasive technique for the intracranial assessment of preterm neonate. Apart from established indication in the evaluation of periventricular haemorrhage, it provides clue to wide range of pathology. This presentation provides a quick roadmap to the technique, imaging anatomy and spectrum of pathological imaging appearances encountered in neonates.
  56,086 6,747 -
Ultrasound of musculoskeletal soft tissue masses
Arun Kinare, Mugdha Brahmnalkar, Shalini D'Costa
July-September 2007, 17(3):201-208
Soft tissue masses have a varied presentation. Though all masses cannot be optimally imaged on USG, its easy availability, real-time capability, and cost-effectiveness, as well as the freedom it provides to examine in any direction, make it an automatic choice as a first-line modality. Though Doppler is an exciting modality, it has its limitations and is not always rewarding. USG is more useful for superficially located masses. The role of USG is to provide information about the extent of the mass, its nature, and its relationship to the surrounding structures. One important aim is to differentiate between a pseudotumor and a true mass lesion. Doppler can provide additional information in selected cases. USG can play a pivotal role in guiding a needle for obtaining a sample for tissue diagnosis. Benign lesions are more common than malignant ones, in day-to-day practice. As with any other musculoskeletal examination, technical expertise and a sound knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy are important.
  56,643 3,861 1
High resolution ultrasonography of the anterior abdominal wall
Sudheer Gokhale
October-December 2007, 17(4):290-298
  54,054 3,075 5
Chest tuberculosis: Radiological review and imaging recommendations
Ashu Seith Bhalla, Ankur Goyal, Randeep Guleria, Arun Kumar Gupta
July-September 2015, 25(3):213-225
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161431  PMID:26288514
Chest tuberculosis (CTB) is a widespread problem, especially in our country where it is one of the leading causes of mortality. The article reviews the imaging findings in CTB on various modalities. We also attempt to categorize the findings into those definitive for active TB, indeterminate for disease activity, and those indicating healed TB. Though various radiological modalities are widely used in evaluation of such patients, no imaging guidelines exist for the use of these modalities in diagnosis and follow-up. Consequently, imaging is not optimally utilized and patients are often unnecessarily subjected to repeated CT examinations, which is undesirable. Based on the available literature and our experience, we propose certain recommendations delineating the role of imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up of such patients. The authors recognize that this is an evolving field and there may be future revisions depending on emergence of new evidence.
  48,147 6,022 -
Seronegative spondyloarthropathy-related sacroiliitis: CT, MRI features and differentials
Daya Prakash, Shailesh M Prabhu, Aparna Irodi
July-September 2014, 24(3):271-278
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.137046  PMID:25114391
Seronegative spondyloarthropathy is a group of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that predominantly affect the axial skeleton. Involvement of sacroiliac joint is considered a hallmark for diagnosis of seronegative spondyloarthropathy and is usually the first manifestation of this condition. It is essential for the radiologist to know the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of spondyloarthropathy-related sacroiliitis as imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and evaluation of response to treatment. We present a pictorial essay of CT and MRI imaging findings in seronegative spondyloarthropathy-related sacroiliitis in various stages and highlight common differentials that need to be considered.
  50,034 3,079 -
Well circumscribed breast carcinoma : Mammographic and sonographic finding report of fine cases
N Shah, SB Patel, KG Goswami, YM Gohil, DM Shah
January-March 2005, 15(1):77-80
  52,354 663 2
CT and MR imaging of odontoid abnormalities: A pictorial review
Nishchint Jain, Ritu Verma, Umesh C Garga, Barinder P Baruah, Sachin K Jain, Surya N Bhaskar
January-March 2016, 26(1):108-119
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.178358  PMID:27081234
Odontoid process is the central pillar of the craniovertebral junction. Imaging of this small structure continues to be a challenge for the radiologists due to complex bony and ligamentous anatomy. A wide range of developmental and acquired abnormalities of odontoid have been identified. Their accurate radiologic evaluation is important as different lesions have markedly different clinical course, patient management, and prognosis. This article seeks to provide knowledge for interpreting appearances of odontoid on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with respect to various disease processes, along with providing a quick review of the embryology and relevant anatomy.
  46,203 5,078 -
Intestinal tuberculosis versus crohn's disease: Clinical and radiological recommendations
Raju Sharma, Kumble S Madhusudhan, Vineet Ahuja
April-June 2016, 26(2):161-172
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184417  PMID:27413261
Intestinal tuberculosis is a common clinical problem in India. The clinical features of this disease are nonspecific and can be very similar to Crohn's disease. Radiological evaluation of the small bowel has undergone a paradigm shift in the last decade. This long tubular organ that has traditionally been difficult to evaluate can now be well-visualized by some innovative imaging and endoscopic techniques. This article highlights the state-of-the-art evaluation of ulceroconstrictive diseases of the bowel and provides recommendations for the differentiation of intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn's disease.
  41,776 5,140 -
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