Indian Journal of Radiology Indian Journal of Radiology  

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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 362-371
Technical and patient-related sources of error and artifacts in bone mineral densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: A pictorial review

1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taleghani Educational Hospital, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohsen Qutbi
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taleghani Hospital, Yaman St., Velenjak, Tehran 1985711151
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijri.IJRI_495_19

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Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is currently the standard and validated tool for measurement of bone mineral density and for the evaluation of osteoporosis. Current densitometry scanners based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method produce two X-ray beams with different energies to differentiate the overlapped soft tissue and bony structures, by creating two different attenuation profiles. Procedural guidelines are available to technicians and physicians to guarantee the best practice, including consistent positioning during scanning and standard reporting. However, similar to other imaging modalities, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry may be influenced by technical errors, and thus, imaging artifacts may arise and accuracy and precision of the results may be influenced. This issue may, in turn, affect the final result and interpretation. Hence, the article is arranged with the intention of presenting some less common and rare technical and patient-related sources of error and resultant artifacts, from poor patient preparation to acquisition and data processing. Where appropriate, the corresponding tables of densitometric results (bone mineral density) and statistical parameters (T- and Z-scores) are provided.

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