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NEUROIMAGING Table of Contents   
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 286-293
Pial arteriovenous fistula: A clinical and neuro-interventional experience of outcomes in a rare entity


1 Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka; Assistant Professor, Radiology (Interventional Radiology), Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
2 Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka; Care Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Arun K Gupta
Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Hosur Road, Bangalore - 560 029, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijri.IJRI_26_19

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Purpose: Pial arteriovenous fistulae (PAVF) are rare intracranial vascular malformations, predominantly seen in children and distinct from arteriovenous malformations and dural arteriovenous fistulae. PAVF often leads to high morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical features and endovascular management of PAVF at various intracranial locations; to analyze the use of liquid embolic agents and coils alone or in combination in the treatment of PAVF and to analyze the outcome of embolization. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of diagnostic angiography and neurointerventional database of our institution identified a cohort of 15 patients with non-galenic PAVF from 2008 to 2014 out of 6750 patients. Fourteen patients were treated endovascularly with coils and liquid embolic materials in combination or alone. Patients were followed up for evaluation of prognosis. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 3 to 37 years. Most patients were male and most common presentation was headache followed by seizure. Most common location of fistula was frontal lobe. The most common type was single artery single hole fistula with venous varix. Satisfactory obliteration was seen in all cases. One patient developed intraparenchymal hematoma on the first post procedural day and outcome was poor. Conclusions: PAVF are rare intracranial vascular malformations which can effectively be managed endovascularly with liquid embolic, coils alone, or in combination. Complete occlusion of the fistula can be achieved in most cases in a single sitting with a reasonable morbidity related to the procedure, compared with the natural history of this disease.


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