Indian Journal of Radiology Indian Journal of Radiology  

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Year : 2006  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 831-834
Role of ultrasound in detection of antenatal foetal malformations

Deptt.of Radiodiagnosis, Government Medical College, Amritsar,Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
S Singh
A-1,Medical College Campus, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-3026.32361

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Aims and Objectives:The aims and objectives of this study was to detect foetal malformations ultrasonographically ,to evaluate associated anomalies and to evaluate outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods:The prospective and retrospective study was conducted on 10890 pregnant women. All pregnant women were subjected to US examination by Siemens, Sonoline SL-2 ultrasound machine. using real time system.3.5 MHz transducer. Results: Total 124 foetuses were found to have major congenital malformations.Pregnant women were referred in routine US for foetal well being or risk factor related to foetal malformations.The average incidence of malformations was 1.14% with maximum no. of malformations 96 (77.41%) during 3rd trimester of pregnancy.Majority of cases were in age group 21-25 years (51.6 %) with youngest women of 18 years and oldest 38 years. Most of the foetal malformations were seen in primigravida (45.96 %). During study 52.42% of pregnant women were at risk ofmalformed foetus in form of discrepancy of height of uterus and period of gestation, 47.58% were clinically routine cases.Majority of malformations were detected during 3rd trimester 98(79.04%) with the range of 13-41 weeks and mean gestational age of 31.16 weeks. Most common anomaly was ventriculomegaly 41 cases (27.33%) followed by anencephaly 39cases(26.00%).Neural tube defects accounted for more than 50%of the anomalies with common association withspinal deformities. Polyhydramnios 28 (71.79%) cases was common association with neural tube defects. Oligohydramnios was associated with 4 (66.66%) cases of renal anomalies.Foetal malformations had predilection female fetuses with male to female ratio of 1:1.3 . Spinal abnormalities were common in male fetuses.Overall mortality of malformed.fetuses was 90(72.58%) cases,however in anencephaly, diaphragmatic hernia and hydrops foetalis it was 100%.In skeletal dysplasias it was 80%. Most common site of encephalocele was occipital in 18(94.73%)cases.Most common renal malformation was found to be bilateral hydronephrosis in 4 patients. Skeletal dysplasia was seen in 5 cases with 3 cases had associated pulmonary hypoplasia. Achondroplasia was seen in 3 cases and achondrogenesis in 2 cases. Conclusion:We concluded in our study that ultrasound should be done between 16-20 weeks in routine and earlier in high risk pregnancy. This leaves adequate time for determining the outcome and fate of pregnancy.Hence it would be worth to aware the practitioner about advantage of early scanning in pregnancy.

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