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   2016| April-June  | Volume 26 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 21, 2016

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Intestinal tuberculosis versus crohn's disease: Clinical and radiological recommendations
Raju Sharma, Kumble S Madhusudhan, Vineet Ahuja
April-June 2016, 26(2):161-172
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184417  PMID:27413261
Intestinal tuberculosis is a common clinical problem in India. The clinical features of this disease are nonspecific and can be very similar to Crohn's disease. Radiological evaluation of the small bowel has undergone a paradigm shift in the last decade. This long tubular organ that has traditionally been difficult to evaluate can now be well-visualized by some innovative imaging and endoscopic techniques. This article highlights the state-of-the-art evaluation of ulceroconstrictive diseases of the bowel and provides recommendations for the differentiation of intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn's disease.
  32,502 4,281 -
Imaging features of primary tumors of the spine: A pictorial essay
Sujata Patnaik, Y Jyotsnarani, Shantiveer G Uppin, Rammurti Susarla
April-June 2016, 26(2):279-289
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184413  PMID:27413280
Primary tumors of spine are rare accounting for less than 5% of new bone tumors diagnosed every year. These tumors may exhibit characteristic imaging features that can help in early diagnosis and improved prognosis. Plasmacytoma/multiple myeloma and lymphoproliferative tumors are the most common malignant primary spinal tumors. Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the spine. Computed tomography is useful to assess tumor matrix and osseous change. Magnetic resonance is useful to study associated soft tissue extension, marrow infiltration, and intraspinal extension. Confusing one tumor with the other based on only imaging findings is not uncommon. However, radiologic manifestations of these tumors need to be correlated with the age, sex, location, and presentation to arrive at a close clinical diagnosis.
  16,126 1,763 -
Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay
Amisha T Shah, Bijal B Jankharia
April-June 2016, 26(2):216-225
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184409  PMID:27413269
The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer.
  16,389 937 -
MDCT evaluation of sternal variations: Pictorial essay
Chary Duraikannu, Olma V Noronha, Pushparajan Sundarrajan
April-June 2016, 26(2):185-194
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184407  PMID:27413263
Sternal variations and anomalies have been identified in the past during autopsy or cadaveric studies. Recently, an increasing number of minor sternal variations have been reported with the advent of multidetector computed tomography (CT). Although there are many sternal variations that occur with varying appearance and prevalence, most of them are not recognized or are underreported during routine imaging of thorax. Identification of sternal variations is important to differentiate from pathological conditions and to prevent fatal complications prior to sternal interventions like marrow aspiration or acupuncture. This article aims to describe the minor and asymptomatic sternal variations by multidetector CT and their clinical significance.
  9,137 575 -
Magnetic resonance enterography: A stepwise interpretation approach and role of imaging in management of adult Crohn's disease
Roopa Ram, David Sarver, Tarun Pandey, Carey L Guidry, Kedar R Jambhekar
April-June 2016, 26(2):173-184
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184405  PMID:27413262
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that often requires frequent imaging of patients in order to detect active disease and other complications related to disease activity. While endoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis, it may be contraindicated in some patients and has a limited role in detecting deep submucosal/mesenteric diseases and intra abdominal complications. In recent years, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has evolved as a noninvasive, radiation free imaging modality in the evaluation of patients with CD. This review article will focus on role of MRE in imaging patients with CD with emphasis on technical considerations, systematic image interpretation, differential diagnoses, and the role of imaging in deciding treatment options for patients.
  3,986 440 -
Bilateral nasolabial cysts - case report and review of literature
Aruna R Patil, Abhinav Pratap Singh, Shrivalli Nandikoor, Prabhu Meganathan
April-June 2016, 26(2):241-244
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184424  PMID:27413273
Nasolabial cyst is a non-odontogenic, extraosseous, soft tissue cyst, commonly unilateral, located in the nasolabial fold. Bilateral nasolabial cysts are of rare occurrence. This case report describes the multimodality imaging appearance of bilateral nasolabial cysts with a review of literature.
  3,846 262 -
Dual left anterior descending artery with anomalous origin of long LAD from pulmonary artery - rare coronary anomaly detected on computed tomography coronary angiography
Aditi Vohra, Harneet Narula
April-June 2016, 26(2):201-205
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184423  PMID:27413266
Dual left anterior descending artery is a rare coronary artery anomaly showing two left anterior descending arteries. Short anterior descending artery usually arises from the left coronary artery, while long anterior descending artery has anomalous origin and course. Dual left anterior descending artery with origin of long anterior descending artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a very rare coronary artery anomaly which has not been reported previously in the literature. We present the computed tomography coronary angiographic findings of this rare case in a young female patient who presented with atypical chest pain.
  3,753 215 -
Magnetic resonance imaging features of complications following hip replacement: A pictorial review
Khushboo Pilania, Bhavin Jankharia
April-June 2016, 26(2):271-278
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184414  PMID:27413279
Hip replacement surgery helps millions of people worldwide walk painlessly each year. With increasing life spans and decreased clinical threshold for surgery, this number will continue to rise. With the increase in the number of surgeries and the longevity of implants, the need for early and prompt diagnosis of complications is also rising. This essay underlines the fact that magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5T scanner with specialized metal artefact reduction sequences is a viable technique to image the post-arthroplasty hip and has vast potential in the prompt and early diagnosis of complications in these patients.
  3,177 269 -
Spontaneous external auditory canal cholesteatoma in a young male: Imaging findings and differential diagnoses
Yashant Aswani, Ravi Varma, Gayathri Achuthan
April-June 2016, 26(2):237-240
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184419  PMID:27413272
A cholesteatoma is a non-neoplastic lesion of the petrous temporal bone commonly described as “skin in the wrong place.” It typically arises within the middle ear cavity, may drain externally via tympanic membrane (mural type), or may originate in the external auditory canal (EAC). The latter type is rarely encountered and typically affects the elderly. EAC cholesteatoma poses diagnostic challenges because it has numerous differential diagnoses. The present case describes a 19-year-old male who presented with gradually progressive diminution of hearing in a previously naïve right ear since 8 months. A soft tissue attenuation lesion confined to the right EAC with erosion of the canal on computed tomography prompted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lesion showed restricted diffusion on MRI. Thus, a diagnosis of spontaneous EAC cholesteatoma was established. The case elucidates the rarity of spontaneous EAC cholesteatoma in a young male. In addition, it describes the role of imaging to detect, delineate the extent, and characterize lesions of petrous temporal bone. The case also discusses common differential diagnoses of EAC cholesteatoma, as well as the importance of diffusion weighted imaging in EAC cholesteatoma similar to its middle ear counterpart.
  3,018 228 -
Diffusion-weighted imaging in extracranial head and neck schwannomas: A distinctive appearance
Abanti Das, Ashu S Bhalla, Raju Sharma, Atin Kumar, Alok Thakar, Ankur Goyal
April-June 2016, 26(2):231-236
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184418  PMID:27413271
Purpose: To evaluate the diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the extracranial schwannomas of head and neck. Materials and Methods: The MRI (including DWI) of 12 patients with pathologically proven head and neck schwannomas (4 men, 8 women, with mean age of 32.6 years; age range 16–50 years) were retrospectively evaluated. Images were analyzed for signal intensity and morphology on conventional sequences followed by the qualitative evaluation of DW images (DWI) and measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Results: Majority of the tumors were located in the parapharyngeal space (8/12). All but one showed heterogeneous appearance, with 10 tumors showing scattered areas of hemorrhage. Eight out of 12 tumors showed intensely hyperintense core surrounded by intermediate signal intensity peripheral rim (reverse target sign) on T2-weighted (T2W) images. On DWI, these eight tumors showed a distinctive appearance, resembling target sign on trace DWI and reverse target on ADC map. Out of the remaining four tumors, one showed uniformly restricted diffusion whereas three showed free diffusion. Mean ADC value in the central area of free diffusion was 2.277 × 10−3 mm2/s (range of 1.790 × 10 −3 to 2.605 × 10−3 mm2/s) whereas in the peripheral area was 1.117 × 10−3 mm2/s (range of 0.656 × 10−3 to 1.701 × 10−3 mm2/s). Rest of the schwannomas showing free diffusion had a mean ADC value of 1.971 × 10−3 mm2/s. Conclusion: Majority of the head and neck schwannomas showed a characteristic appearance of free diffusion in the centre and restricted diffusion in the periphery of the mass.
  2,725 255 -
Teleradiology- a cyber cafe approach
Chander Mohan
April-June 2016, 26(2):159-160
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184404  PMID:27413260
  2,619 304 -
Amplatzer vascular plug as an embolic agent in different vascular pathologies: A pictorial essay
Jonathan Tresley, Shivank Bhatia, Issam Kably, Prasoon Poozhikunnath Mohan, Jason Salsamendi, Govindarajan Narayanan
April-June 2016, 26(2):254-261
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184422  PMID:27413276
The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) is a cylindrical plug made of self-expanding nitinol wire mesh with precise delivery control, which can be used for a variety of vascular pathologies. An AVP is an ideal vascular occlusion device particularly in high-flow vessels, where there is high risk of migration and systemic embolization with traditional occlusion devices. We performed 28 embolizations using the AVP from 2009 to 2014 and achieved complete occlusion without complications.
  2,668 176 -
Characterization of lesions in dense breasts: Does tomosynthesis help?
Krithika Rangarajan, Smriti Hari, Sanjay Thulkar, Sanjay Sharma, Anurag Srivastava, Rajinder Parshad
April-June 2016, 26(2):210-215
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184416  PMID:27413268
Context: Mammography in dense breasts is challenging due to lesion obscuration by tissue overlap. Does tomosynthesis offers a solution? Aims: To study the impact of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in characterizing lesions in breasts of different mammographic densities. Settings and Design: Prospective blinded study comparing mammography in two views with Mammography + Tomosynthesis. Methods and Material: Tomosynthesis was performed in 199 patients who were assigned Breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) categories 0, 3, 4, or 5 on two-dimensional (2D) mammogram. Mammograms were first categorized into one of 4 mammographic breast densities in accordance with the American College of Radiology (ACR). Three radiologists independently analyzed these images and assigned a BIRADS category first based on 2D mammogram alone, and then assigned a fresh BIRADS category after taking mammography and tomosynthesis into consideration. A composite gold-standard was used in the study (histopathology, ultrasound, follow-up mammogram, magnetic resonance imaging). Each lesion was categorized into 3 groups—superior categorization with DBT, no change in BIRADS, or inferior BIRADS category based on comparison with the gold-standard. The percentage of lesions in each group was calculated for different breast densities. Results: There were 260 lesions (ages 28–85). Overall, superior categorization was seen in 21.2% of our readings on addition of DBT to mammography. DBT was most useful in ACR Densities 3 and 4 breasts where it led to more appropriate categorization in 27 and 42% of lesions, respectively. DBT also increased diagnostic confidence in 54.5 and 63.6% of lesions in ACR Densities 3 and 4, respectively. Conclusions: In a diagnostic setting, the utility of tomosynthesis increases with increasing breast density. This helps in identifying the sub category of patients where DBT can actually change management.
  2,577 212 -
Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of breast
Smita Srivastava, Jyoti Arora, Anushri Parakh, Ruchika Kumar Goel
April-June 2016, 26(2):226-230
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184408  PMID:27413270
Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare soft tissue tumor that is morphologically indistinguishable from skeletal ES. We report a case of a 25-year-old female with recurrent EES/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of right breast with imaging findings on mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging breast, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography.
  2,316 202 -
Osteofibrous dysplasia of clavicle clinically mimicking chronic osteomyelitis
Nirmal Raj Gopinathan, Mahesh Prakash, Balaji Saibaba, Ashim Das
April-June 2016, 26(2):290-293
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184411  PMID:27413281
Osteofibrous dysplasia or ossifying fibroma is an uncommon benign fibro-osseous lesion of childhood, commonly described in the maxilla and the mandible. Among long bones, it usually presents in the tibia as a painless swelling or anterior bowing. Ossifying fibroma of clavicle has never been reported in English literature, to the best of our knowledge. Here, we would like to present an unusual case of osteofibrous dysplasia of clavicle clinically mimicking chronic osteomyelitis.
  2,295 188 -
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
Arun Sharma, Gurpreet S Gulati, Neeraj Parakh, Abhinav Aggarwal
April-June 2016, 26(2):195-197
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184415  PMID:27413264
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a morbid condition associated with complications such as hemoptysis, right heart failure, paradoxical embolism, and even death. There is no known association of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. Possible hypothesis for this association is an increased pulmonary vascular resistance leading to the compensatory formation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. We present one such case presenting with hemoptysis that was managed with endovascular treatment.
  2,234 195 -
A rare case of esophageal lung in a neonate
Megharanjini Patil, Jagadish Sutagatti, Mohan Bhavikatti, Puneet V Nayak
April-June 2016, 26(2):206-209
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184421  PMID:27413267
We report a rare case of esophageal lung in a neonate who presented with repeated chest infections and respiratory distress. Chest radiograph revealed increased opacification of the right lung with reduced lung volume and air bronchograms. Further evaluation with computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of only left mainstem bronchus at the tracheal bifurcation. Right mainstem bronchus originated from distal esophagus and aerated the right lung. Nasogastric tube was inserted into the stomach with injection of small amount of dilute barium through it, which established the communication of right mainstem bronchus with esophagus. Advanced CT scan imaging by virtual bronchoscopy and volume rendering further delineated the anatomical abnormality precisely prior to surgery. Surgical findings confirmed the diagnosis.
  1,983 264 -
Computed tomography coronary angiography diagnosis of single right coronary artery with congenital absence of left coronary artery system equivalents
Shahyan Mohsin Siddiqui, RC Kesava Rao, Sashidhar Kaza, EA Padma Kumar
April-June 2016, 26(2):198-200
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184406  PMID:27413265
The present case report is computed tomography (CT) coronary angiographic depiction of an exceedingly rare entity-single right coronary artery arising from the right sinus of Valsalva with the absence of equivalent left coronary artery system branches and associated mitral valve prolapse. Even though a statistical rarity, it is potentially fatal and can cause myocardial ischemia, sudden cardiac death, and warrants immediate clinical attention. Further, the report reveals the decisive role of CT coronary angiogram in the diagnosis of such rare entities, in contrast to catheter angiography, which may be inconclusive.
  1,963 149 -
Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland
Avinash Kumar Bhardwaj, Vinayaga Mani, Rashmi Dixit, Anju Garg
April-June 2016, 26(2):245-248
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184420  PMID:27413274
Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.
  1,937 149 -
Percutaneous repair of iatrogenic subclavian artery injury by suture-mediated closure device
Rahul S Chivate, Suyash S Kulkarni, Nitin S Shetty, Ashwin M Polnaya, Kunal B Gala, Paresh G Patel
April-June 2016, 26(2):262-266
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184425  PMID:27413277
Central venous catheterization through internal jugular vein is done routinely in intensive care units. It is generally safe, more so when the procedure is performed under ultrasound guidance. However, there could be inadvertent puncture of other vessels in the neck when the procedure is not performed under real-time sonographic guidance. Closure of this vessel opening can pose a challenge if it is an artery, in a location difficult to compress, and is further complicated by deranged coagulation profile. Here, we discuss the removal of an inadvertently placed catheter from subclavian artery with closure of arteriotomy percutaneously using arterial suture-mediated closure device.
  1,845 119 -
OUTBACK catheter for treatment of superficial femoral and iliac artery chronic total occlusion: Experience from two centers
Mohammad Ali Husainy, Balla Suresh, Cheng Fang, Thoraya Ammar, Rajesh Botchu, V Thava
April-June 2016, 26(2):249-253
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184410  PMID:27413275
Purpose: The OUTBACK® catheter is a reentry device that enables reentry into a vessel lumen from the subintimal space during subintimal angioplasty. It is reserved for cases where reentry has not been possible using conventional wire and catheter techniques. We report a two-center experience in recanalization of the chronic total occlusions of the common iliac (CIA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using the OUTBACK® catheter in cases where other techniques were unsuccessful. Material and Methods: All cases where recanalization was performed using the OUTBACK® reentry catheter between January 2010 to January 2015 were retrospectively identified and included in this study. 21 patients were identified. The indication for intervention in these cases included claudication and critical leg ischemia. In all cases, conventional recanalization could not be successfully achieved. Results: The OUTBACK® catheter was used to recanalize 10 SFA occlusion and 9 CIA occlusions. In 19 patients (90%), reentry into true arterial lumen was successfully achieved. 17 patients had their recanalization through the transfemoral approach whereas 2 patients had a transpopliteal artery approach. In 2 patients, reentry into the true lumen could not be achieved using the OUTBACK® catheter due to patient's intolerability for the procedure and severe atherosclerotic calcified plaques. There was 100% patency of the vessel intervened on Duplex ultrasound at 24 months of follow up. 16 patients (84%) remained asymptomatic and 2 patients (10.5%) reported worsening of their symptoms due to the development of new lesions within the arterial system. Conclusion: The OUTBACK® catheter is an effective and safe technique for reentry into the vessel lumen when conventional techniques fail.
  1,789 120 -
Recurrent hemoptysis: An unusual cause and novel management
Praharsha Surya, Shyamkumar N Keshava, Aparna Irodi, Sunil Vyas, Balamugesh Thangakunam
April-June 2016, 26(2):267-270
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.184412  PMID:27413278
We report a rare case a 15 year old boy who presented with recurrent hemoptysis. There was past history of pancreatitis. A CT scan of thorax revealed a small collection in the region of the tail of the pancreas and a tract from it extending across the diaphragm into the posterobasal segment of left lower lobe, suggesting a pancreatico-pleuro-pulmonary fistula. The fistula was embolised by percutaneous injection of glue into the collection and fistula, which resulted in good symptom control.
  1,701 174 -
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