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   2015| July-September  | Volume 25 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 24, 2015

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Chest tuberculosis: Radiological review and imaging recommendations
Ashu Seith Bhalla, Ankur Goyal, Randeep Guleria, Arun Kumar Gupta
July-September 2015, 25(3):213-225
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161431  PMID:26288514
Chest tuberculosis (CTB) is a widespread problem, especially in our country where it is one of the leading causes of mortality. The article reviews the imaging findings in CTB on various modalities. We also attempt to categorize the findings into those definitive for active TB, indeterminate for disease activity, and those indicating healed TB. Though various radiological modalities are widely used in evaluation of such patients, no imaging guidelines exist for the use of these modalities in diagnosis and follow-up. Consequently, imaging is not optimally utilized and patients are often unnecessarily subjected to repeated CT examinations, which is undesirable. Based on the available literature and our experience, we propose certain recommendations delineating the role of imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up of such patients. The authors recognize that this is an evolving field and there may be future revisions depending on emergence of new evidence.
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Reviewing the review
Sanjay N Jain
July-September 2015, 25(3):211-212
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161424  PMID:26288513
  13,802 1,654 -
Carpal boss in chronic wrist pain and its association with partial osseous coalition and osteoarthritis - A case report with focus on MRI findings
Feng Poh
July-September 2015, 25(3):276-279
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161455  PMID:26288522
The carpal boss is a bony prominence at the dorsal aspect of the 2 nd and/or 3 rd carpometacarpal joint, which has been linked to various etiologies, including trauma, os styloideum, osteophyte formation, and partial osseous coalition. It may result in symptoms through secondary degeneration, ganglion formation, bursitis, or extensor tendon abnormalities by altered biomechanics of wrist motion. We present a case of symptomatic carpal boss with the finding of a partial osseous coalition at the 2 nd carpometacarpal (metacarpal-trapezoid) joint and highlight the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of carpal boss impingement and secondary osteoarthritis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in the literature describing the imaging findings of partial osseous coalition and degenerative osteoarthritis in relation to carpal boss.
  7,767 288 -
Perspectives in ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions
Aditya Ravindra Daftary, Alpana Sudhir Karnik
July-September 2015, 25(3):246-260
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161445  PMID:26288519
Ultrasonography (USG) is a safe, easily available, and cost-effective modality, which has the additional advantage of being real time for imaging and image-guided interventions of the musculoskeletal system. Musculoskeletal interventions are gaining popularity in sports and rehabilitation for rapid healing of muscle and tendon injuries in professional athletes, healing of chronic tendinopathies, aspiration of joint effusions, periarticular bursae and ganglia, and perineural injections in acute and chronic pain syndromes. This article aims to provide an overview of the spectrum of musculoskeletal interventions that can be done under USG guidance both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
  7,268 592 -
Primary versus secondary achalasia: New signs on barium esophagogram
Pankaj Gupta, Uma Debi, Saroj Kant Sinha, Kaushal Kishor Prasad
July-September 2015, 25(3):288-295
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161465  PMID:26288525
Aim: To investigate new signs on barium swallow that can differentiate primary from secondary achalasia. Materials and Methods: Records of 30 patients with primary achalasia and 17 patients with secondary achalasia were reviewed. Clinical, endoscopic, and manometric data was recorded. Barium esophagograms were evaluated for peristalsis and morphology of distal esophageal segment (length, symmetry, nodularity, shouldering, filling defects, and "tram-track sign"). Results: Mean age at presentation was 39 years in primary achalasia and 49 years in secondary achalasia. The mean duration of symptoms was 3.5 years in primary achalasia and 3 months in secondary achalasia. False-negative endoscopic results were noted in the first instance in five patients. In the secondary achalasia group, five patients had distal esophageal segment morphology indistinguishable from that of primary achalasia. None of the patients with primary achalasia and 35% patients with secondary achalasia had a length of the distal segment approaching combined height of two vertebral bodies. None of the patients with secondary achalasia and 34% patients with primary achalasia had maximum caliber of esophagus approaching combined height of two vertebral bodies. Tertiary contractions were noted in 90% patients with primary achalasia and 24% patients with secondary achalasia. Tram-track sign was found in 55% patients with primary achalasia. Filling defects in the distal esophageal segment were noted in 94% patients with secondary achalasia. Conclusion: Length of distal esophageal segment, tertiary contractions, tram-track sign, and filling defects in distal esophageal segment are useful esophagographic features distinguishing primary from secondary achalasia.
  6,080 768 -
Clinicoradiological appraisal of 'paraduodenal pancreatitis': Pancreatitis outside the pancreas!
Ankur Arora, S Rajesh, Amar Mukund, Yashwant Patidar, Shalini Thapar, Asit Arora, Vikram Bhatia
July-September 2015, 25(3):303-314
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161467  PMID:26288527
Purpose: Paraduodenal pancreatitis (PP) is a unique form of focal chronic pancreatitis that selectively involves the duodenum and aberrant pancreatic tissue located near the minor papilla (beyond the pancreas proper). The pseudotumoral nature of the disease often generates considerable clinical quandary and patient apprehension, and therefore merits a better understanding. The present study appraises the clinicoradiological manifestations of PP in 33 patients. Materials and Methods: Clinical, laboratory, and radiological manifestations of 33 patients of PP treated in gastroenterology/hepatology and hepato-pancreatico-biliary surgery units during June 2010-August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: All patients were young to middle-aged men (100%) with history of alcohol abuse (93.9%) and/or smoking (42.4%), who presented either with acute or gradually worsening abdominal pain (90.9%). Pancreatic enzymes and serum tumor markers remained normal or were mildly/transiently elevated. Cystic variant was detected in 57.6% (solid in 42.4%); the disease remained confined to the groove/duodenum (pure form) in 45.4%. Medial duodenal wall thickening with increased enhancement was seen in 87.87 and 81.81%, respectively, and duodenal/paraduodenal cysts were seen in 78.78%. Pancreatic calcifications and biliary stricture were seen 27.3% patients. Peripancreatic arteries were neither infiltrated nor encased. Conclusion: PP has a discrete predilection for middle-aged men with history of longstanding alcohol abuse and/or smoking. Distinguishing imaging findings include thickening of the pancreatic side of duodenum exhibiting increased enhancement with intramural/paraduodenal cysts. This may be accompanied by plate-like scar tissue in the groove region, which may simulate groove pancreatic carcinoma. However, as opposed to carcinoma, the peripancreatic arteries are neither infiltrated nor encased, rather are medially displaced.
  5,431 633 -
Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic hernia: Pictorial review of CT signs
Ravinder Kaur, Anuj Prabhakar, Suman Kochhar, Usha Dalal
July-September 2015, 25(3):226-232
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161433  PMID:26288515
Blunt diaphragmatic rupture rarely accounts for immediate mortality and may go clinically silent until complications occur which can be life threatening. Although many imaging techniques have proven useful for the diagnosis of blunt diaphragmatic rupture, multidetector CT (MDCT) is considered to be the reference standard for the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injury. Numerous CT signs indicating blunt diaphragmatic rupture have been described in literature with variable significance. Accurate diagnosis depends upon the analysis of all the signs rather than a single sign; however, the presence of blunt diaphragmatic rupture should be considered in the presence of any of the described signs. We present a pictorial review of various CT signs used to diagnose blunt diaphragmatic injury. Multiplanar reconstruction is very useful; however, predominantly axial sections have been described in this pictorial review as the images shown are from dual-slice CT.
  5,311 694 -
Pediatric multifocal liver lesions evaluated by MRI
Majed Almotairi, Kamaldine Oudjhane, Govind B Chavhan
July-September 2015, 25(3):296-302
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161466  PMID:26288526
Objective: The purpose of this study is to present our experience with MRI evaluation of multifocal liver lesions in children and describe the MRI characteristics of these lesions. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive MRI exams performed for the evaluation of multiple liver lesions between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 was done to note the number of lesions, the size of the largest lesion, MR signal characteristics, and background liver. Final diagnosis was assigned to each case based on pathology in the available cases and a combination of clinical features, imaging features, and follow-up in the remaining cases. Results: A total of 48 children (22 boys, 26 girls; age between 3 months and 18 years with average age 10.58 years and median age 11 years) were included in the study. Totally 51 lesion diagnoses were seen in 48 children that included 17 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), 8 hemangiomas, 7 metastases, 6 regenerative nodules, 3 adenomas, 3 abscesses, and one each of angiomyolipoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, focal fatty infiltration, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic infarction, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and hepatic cyst. Background liver was normal in 33, cirrhotic in 10, fatty in 3, and siderotic in 2 children. Most FNH, hemangiomas, and regenerative nodules showed characteristic MRI features, while metastases were variable in signal pattern. Conclusion: Many commonly seen multifocal liver lesions in children have characteristic MRI features. MRI can help to arrive at reasonable differential diagnoses for multifocal liver lesions in children and guide further investigation and management.
  3,560 422 -
Osteoid osteoma masquerading tubercular arthritis or osteomyelitis on MRI: Case series and review of literature
Jatinder Pal Singh, Smita Srivastava, Dharmendra Singh
July-September 2015, 25(3):261-268
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161447  PMID:26288520
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for osteoid osteoma could be misleading and can be misinterpreted as tuberculosis, especially when used as the principal modality of investigation. We retrospectively reviewed cases presenting to our institute for second opinion and selected six cases that were referred to our institute with a provisional diagnosis of tubercular arthritis or osteomyelitis and were identified to have osteoid osteoma. We reviewed the literature on typical and atypical clinical and radiological presentations of osteoid osteoma depending upon their location and present radiological features on MRI that should alert the radiologists toward a correct diagnosis.
  3,632 203 -
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia associated with intramuscular myxomas: Mazabraud syndrome
Jose Daniel Samper Wamba, Maria Jose Fernandez Bermudez, Teresa Lorenzo Dominguez, Luis Ramos Pascua
July-September 2015, 25(3):280-283
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161456  PMID:26288523
The authors report a new case of Mazabraud syndrome in a 69-year-old woman complaining of pain in her right thigh. Plain radiographs demonstrated radiological findings consistent with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of the right femur and tibia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study showed soft tissue tumors located in the vastus intermedius muscle with typical signal features of intramuscular myxomas. Biopsy was not performed because of its benign nature. Symptomatic treatment was prescribed and all the lesions remained 1 year after the diagnosis.
  3,246 247 -
Endovascular treatment of thrombosed inferior vena cava filters: Techniques and short-term outcomes
Mohammad Arabi, Venkataramu Krishnamurthy, Wojciech Cwikiel, Ranjith Vellody, Thomas W Wakefield, John Rectenwald, David Williams
July-September 2015, 25(3):233-238
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161436  PMID:26288516
Purpose: To present the techniques for endovascular treatment of thrombosed filter-bearing inferior vena cavae (IVCs), along with short-term clinical and imaging follow-up. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 consecutive patients (17 females and 28 males), aged 19-79 years (mean age of 49 years), who had IVC filter placement complicated by symptomatic acute or chronic iliocaval thrombosis and underwent endovascular therapy were studied. All patients presented with lower extremity swelling and/or pain. One patient also had bilateral lower extremity swelling and chronic gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding which was secondary to chronic systemic to portal venous collaterals. Patients underwent one or more of the following endovascular treatments depending on the chronicity and extent of thrombosis: (a) catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) (n = 25), (b) pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT) (n = 15), (c) balloon angioplasty (n = 45), and/or (d) stent placement across the filter (n = 42). In addition, 16 patients underwent groin arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation (36%) and 3 (7%) had femoral venous thrombectomy to improve flow in the recanalized iliac veins and IVCs. Results: Anatomical success was achieved in all patients. Follow-up was not available in 10 patients (lost to follow-up, n = 4; expired due to comorbidities, n = 2; lost to follow-up after re-intervention, n = 4). At a mean follow-up time of 13.3 months (range 1-48 months), clinical success was achieved in 27 patients (60%), i.e. in 21 patients without re-intervention and in 6 patients with re-intervention. Clinical success was not achieved despite re-intervention in eight patients. Higher clinical success was noted in patients who did not require repeat interventions (P = 0.03) and the time to re-intervention was significantly shorter in patients who had clinical failure (P = 0.01). AVF creation did not improve the clinical success rate (P = 1). There was no significant difference in clinical success between patients who had acute or subacute thrombosis compared to those who had chronically occluded filter-bearing IVCs (P = 1). Conclusion: This study suggests that endovascular therapy for thrombosed filter-bearing IVCs is safe and technically feasible.
  2,732 223 -
Choledochal cyst of the cystic duct: Report of imaging findings in three cases and review of literature
Sonali Sethi, Lalendra Upreti, Amit K Verma, Sunil K Puri
July-September 2015, 25(3):315-320
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161468  PMID:26288528
The choledochal cysts, which refer to the cystic dilatation of the biliary duct, are rare lesions generally seen in children. Choledochal cyst of the cystic duct is an uncommon entity. Often, it is associated with the choledochal cyst of the rest of the biliary tree. Isolated cystic duct choledochal cyst is quite rare. Most of these lesions have been recognized only on surgery. Modern cross-sectional imaging methods have facilitated preoperative recognition and characterization of cystic duct cyst enabling formulation of appropriate management strategy. We report the imaging findings in three cases of choledochal cyst involving the cystic duct. All these cases were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. A review of cases reported in the literature and the role of imaging in guiding the management are also presented.
  2,578 331 -
A rare case of extra nodal Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated multifocal osseous manifestation
Maharshi H Patel, Kedar R Jambhekar, Tarun Pandey, Roopa Ram
July-September 2015, 25(3):284-287
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161459  PMID:26288524
Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) or Rosai-Dorfman disease is a non-neoplastic condition which typically presents as massive, bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and can involve multiple extranodal organ systems such as skin, eyes, and upper respiratory tract in about 28% cases. Bone lesions in association with nodal disease are seen in less than 10% cases. Isolated bone involvement as the only manifestation of SHML is extremely rare, with less than 50 cases reported in the literature. We report a very uncommon case of Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated multifocal osseous involvement as the only presenting feature, involving about 10 different sites with no lymphadenopathy or other organ system involvement.
  2,129 189 -
USG-guided needle-directed pulse-spray pharmaco-mechanical thrombolysis of hemodialysis grafts/fistula: A novel technique
KS Amitha Vikrama, N Srivalli, Raju S Venkataramana
July-September 2015, 25(3):244-245
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161442  PMID:26288518
The incidence of end-stage renal disease is significantly increasing and most patients who require renal transplantation are undergoing hemodialysis through tunneled/non-tunneled dialysis catheters and arteriovenous fistulas. The greatest disadvantage of the hemodialysis access is  the limited durability of the arteriovenous fistulas and grafts, which, on average, remain patent for <3 years, but are the lifeline for hemodialysis patients. Catheter-directed interventions are successful in re-establishing flow in more than 80% of thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas and have become the treatment of choice for failing or thrombosed accesses. However, these interventions are expensive and require a tertiary center with well-equipped labs. The novel technique of needle-directed thrombolysis is less expensive and can be done on an OPD basis in any primary healthcare setup. To the extent we have searched, no such technique has been published so far in the English literature.
  2,124 181 -
Evaluation of static and dynamic MRI for assessing response of bone sarcomas to preoperative chemotherapy: Correlation with histological necrosis
Priyadarshi Amit, Atul Malhotra, Rahul Kumar, Lokesh Kumar, Dilip Kumar Patro, Sundar Elangovan
July-September 2015, 25(3):269-275
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161452  PMID:26288521
Objectives: Preoperative chemotherapy plays a key role in management of bone sarcomas. Postoperative evaluation of histological necrosis has been the gold standard method of assessing response to preoperative chemotherapy. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of static and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing response preoperatively. Materials and Methods: Our study included 14 patients (12 osteosarcomas and 2 malignant fibrous histiocytomas) with mean age of 21.8 years, treated with preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery. They were evaluated with static and dynamic MRI twice, before starting chemotherapy and again prior to surgery. Change in tumor volume and slope of signal intensity - time curve were calculated and correlated with percentage of histological necrosis using Pearson correlation test. Results: The change in dynamic MRI slope was significant (P = 0.001). Also, ≥60% reduction in slope of the curve proved to be an indicator of good histological response [positive predictive value (PPV) =80%]. Change in tumor volume failed to show significant correlation (P = 0.071). Although it showed high negative predictive value (NPV = 85.7%), PPV was too low (PPV = 57.14%). Conclusions: Dynamic MRI correctly predicts histological necrosis after administration of preoperative chemotherapy to bone sarcomas. Hence, it can be used as a preoperative indicator of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. On the other hand, volumetric assessment by static MRI is not an effective predictor of histological necrosis. This study proves the superiority of dynamic contrast-enhanced study over volumetric study by MRI.
  2,087 188 -
The Stall Grid Contest
Shyamkumar Nidugala Keshava, Sridhar Gibikote
July-September 2015, 25(3):325-326
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161472  PMID:26288532
  2,096 140 -
Endovascular treatment of isolated arterial pulmonary malinosculation
Suraj Mammen, Shyamkumar N Keshava, Vinu Moses, George Koshy Chiramel, Aparna Irodi, Birla Roy Gnanamuthu
July-September 2015, 25(3):239-243
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161439  PMID:26288517
We report the endovascular management of a series of four cases of isolated systemic supply to normal lung or isolated arterial pulmonary malinosculation of the left lung. In these cases, the basal segments of the left lung lacked normal pulmonary arterial supply and instead received systemic arterial blood from the descending thoracic aorta. The relevant anatomy and literature are also reviewed.
  1,859 156 -
Mimics of bone tumors
Yashant Aswani, Karan Manoj Anandpara, Priya Hira
July-September 2015, 25(3):322-324
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161471  PMID:26288531
  1,632 307 -
Multidetector CT angiography in evaluation of prospective renal donors
Sanika A Ganpule, Arvind P Ganpule
July-September 2015, 25(3):326-327
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161473  PMID:26288533
  1,388 187 -
Comment on: Fetal gastric pseudomass at 30 weeks of gestation and its regression after 17 days of birth
Sema Yildiz, Fuat Özkan, Mehmet Sait Menzilcioglu, Mahmut Duymus
July-September 2015, 25(3):321-321
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161469  PMID:26288529
  1,377 113 -
Morphometric analysis of diameter and relationship of vertebral artery with respect to transverse foramen in Indian population: Erratum

July-September 2015, 25(3):328-328
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.161474  PMID:26288534
  1,184 100 -
Authors reply
K Balakumar, K Misha, K Milind
July-September 2015, 25(3):321-322
  1,021 74 -
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