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   2008| October-December  | Volume 18 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 3, 2008

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PET/CT: Current status in India
Venkatesh Rangarajan, Nilendu C Purandare, Anshu R Sharma, Sneha Shah
October-December 2008, 18(4):290-294
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43840  PMID:19774183
PET/CT is a new modality with integration of PET and CT systems. In India, since December 2004 there has been a steady increase in the number of imaging systems. From stand-alone PET/CT systems with on-site cyclotrons, mostly in the government sector, the modality has matured to such an extent that, today, the majority of the PET/CT scanners and cyclotrons are in the private setup; also, scanners situated in different locations (and even different cities) share the isotope produced from one cyclotron. This shows how much this field has developed and reflects the confidence of the end users. The current status of PET/CT in India is indeed healthy and heartening and the future certainly looks promising.
  9,843 817 3
Prenatal diagnosis of fetal syndromes
BS Rama Murthy
October-December 2008, 18(4):345-349
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43845  PMID:19774195
A syndrome is a pattern of multiple anomalies arising due to a single known causative factor. Ultrasonography has enabled us to recognize many fetal anomalies and dysmorphic features. Recognition of the anomaly pattern leads to the diagnosis of a particular syndrome. This enables us to counsel prospective parents and aids in management. We present a selection of fetal syndromes in the form of a pictorial essay.
  9,212 952 -
Fetal environment
Arun Kinare
October-December 2008, 18(4):326-344
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43848  PMID:19774194
The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid.
  9,098 884 4
CT perfusion in acute stroke
Niranjan Khandelwal
October-December 2008, 18(4):281-286
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43837  PMID:19774181
Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome caused by multiple mechanisms, all of which result in disruption of normal cerebral blood flow and thereby cause cerebral dysfunction. Its early diagnosis is important as its treatment is dependent on the time elapsed since ictus. Delay in diagnosis and treatment translates into increase neuronal loss and thereby increased morbidity. CT scan, and in particular perfusion CT, has helped greatly in the early diagnosis of stroke. This article is an endeavor to explain the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia and the role of CT perfusion in detecting it.
  7,004 1,448 7
Right-sided hemiagenesis of the thyroid lobe and isthmus: A case report
Prabhat Kumar Tiwari, M Baxi, J Baxi, D Koirala
October-December 2008, 18(4):313-315
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.40958  PMID:19774189
Unilateral or bilateral hypoplasia or agenesis of one or both thyroid lobes, with or without isthmic agenesis, is a rare developmental anomaly. Hemiagenesis of the left lobe is far commoner than of the right. Clinically, these patients may be euthyroid, hyperthyroid, or hypothyroid. Ultrasonography is usually able to diagnose this condition easily, as we demonstrate in this case report of a 37-year-old lady with an incidentally detected thyroid nodule who was found to have hemiagenesis of the right lobe and isthmus.
  7,905 322 1
Case report: Mounier-Kuhn syndrome
Satish Kachhawa, ML Meena, Gaurav Jindal, Bharat Jain
October-December 2008, 18(4):316-318
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.40955  PMID:19774190
Tracheobronchomegaly or Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by marked dilatation of the trachea and main bronchi, bronchiectasis, and recurrent respiratory tract infections. The etiology of this disorder is uncertain and the clinical presentation is variable. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the characteristic CT scan findings. We report a case in a 21-year-old man presenting with recurrent lower respiratory tract infections.
  6,075 481 8
Case report: Epidermoid cyst misdiagnosed as a loculated pericardial effusion
NC Sharma, Anshu Sharma, Manish Bajaj
October-December 2008, 18(4):319-321
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.40956  PMID:19774191
A 25-year old man presented with a mediastinal lesion which was initially diagnosed as a loculated pericardial collection on echocardiography. Subsequent imaging showed it to be a cystic mediastinal mass, and following surgery and histopathology, it turned out to be an epidermoid cyst.
  5,145 302 2
Case report: Subutaneous hemangiomatosis causing Kasabach-Merritt syndrome - MRI features
Tarun P Jain, Raju Sharma, Rohini Gupta
October-December 2008, 18(4):295-297
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.40957  PMID:19774184
Hemangiomatosis is an uncommon entity in which there is diffuse infiltration of soft tissue or bone by hemangioma. Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is an uncommon complication of large hemangiomas, in which there is thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Plain radiographs, in addition to showing a soft tissue mass, also show a variety of findings in the bones. MRI is the investigation of choice. A case of a 2-year-old child suffering from hemangiomatosis and a resultant Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is presented.
  4,896 387 -
Absent pulmonary valve syndrome with tetralogy of Fallot and associated dextrocardia detected at an early gestational age of 26 weeks
Alpa H Bharati, Ajita Naware, Suleman A Merchant
October-December 2008, 18(4):352-354
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43841  PMID:19774197
Absent pulmonary valve syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, usually seen in association with a ventricular septal defect. It has been reported to occur in 3-6% of cases of tetralogy of Fallot. Absence of the pulmonary valve results in a dilated main pulmonary artery, which can be seen as a cystic, pulsatile, paracardiac lesion on antenatal USG. Such a lesion, though rare, can easily be detected. We report a case of this rare anomaly which was present in association with a ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, and dextrocardia. The case was detected at 26 weeks of gestation.
  4,285 385 -
Radiology websites: Conventional radiology
IK Indrajit
October-December 2008, 18(4):355-356
  3,977 612 -
Storage media for computers in radiology
Ravi Varma Dandu
October-December 2008, 18(4):287-289
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43838  PMID:19774182
The introduction and wide acceptance of digital technology in medical imaging has resulted in an exponential increase in the amount of data produced by the radiology department. There is an insatiable need for storage space to archive this ever-growing volume of image data. Healthcare facilities should plan the type and size of the storage media that they needed, based not just on the volume of data but also on considerations such as the speed and ease of access, redundancy, security, costs, as well as the longevity of the archival technology. This article reviews the various digital storage media and compares their merits and demerits.
  4,074 513 1
Case report: Antenatal diagnosis of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome - laryngeal atresia
Mukesh Kumar Garg
October-December 2008, 18(4):350-351
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43843  PMID:19774196
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a near fatal condition of multifactorial inheritence, in which the fetus has a dilated trachea, enlarged echogenic lungs, an inverted or flattened diaphagram, and ascites. A case of CHAOS, diagnosed antenatally on USG at 28 weeks of gestation, is being reported here.
  4,003 396 5
Case Report: Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of face
Rangasami Rajeswaran, Jyotsna Murthy, Anupama Chandrasekharan, Santhosh Joseph
October-December 2008, 18(4):306-309
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43847  PMID:19774187
Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face is a rare condition characterized by diffuse fatty infiltration of the facial soft tissues. There may be muscle involvement along with associated bony hyperplasia. It is a type of lipomatous tumor that is congenital in origin; it is rare and seen usually in childhood. We recently saw an 11-year-old girl with this condition. She presented with a swelling of the right side of the face that had been present since birth; there were typical findings on plain radiographs, CT, and MRI. The patient underwent cosmetic surgery. Histopathological examination showed mature adipocytes without any capsule.
  4,007 380 10
Extraconal cavernous hemangioma of orbit: A case report
Rama Anand, Kavita Deria, Pankaj Sharma, MK Narula, Rajiv Garg
October-December 2008, 18(4):310-312
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43849  PMID:19774188
Cavernous hemangioma is the most common benign noninfiltrative neoplasm of the orbit. Most cavernous hemangiomas are intraconal and lateral in location. We present a case of a cavernous hemangioma with an unusual extraconal and superomedial location.
  3,590 330 1
Case Report: Macrodystrophia lipomatosa - Illustration of two cases
V Singla, V Virmani, P Tuli, P Singh, N Khandelwal
October-December 2008, 18(4):298-301
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43844  PMID:19774185
Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare cause of congenital macrodactyly, characterized by progressive proliferation of all mesenchymal elements, with a disproportionate increase in fibroadipose tissue. This developmental anomaly is reportedly more common in the foot than in the hand, with a predilection for the plantar and median nerve distribution. We present two cases of MDL of the hand, one of which had an unusual nerve territory distribution, making clinical diagnosis difficult. Preoperative diagnosis was however made on the basis of radiography and MRI and was later confirmed on surgery.
  3,258 416 7
Role of cervical ultrasonography in primary hyperparathyroidism
Feroze Shaheen, Nisar Chowdry, Tariq Gojwari, Arshad Iqbal Wani, Showkat Khan
October-December 2008, 18(4):302-305
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43846  PMID:19774186
Aim: To evaluate the role of USG in the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with symptomatic hyperparathyroidism and to compare its usefulness with that of scintigraphy scan and postoperative findings. Material and methods : Twenty-five patients with symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism were subjected to USG of the neck and nuclear scintigraphy, followed by surgery. The results were independently analyzed and compared with per-operative findings. Results : The 25 patients had a total of 28 abnormal glands: 22 solitary adenomas, and 6 multiple adenomas (two each in three patients). USG detected 20 out of 22 solitary adenomas and three out of six multiple adenomas. USG missed five abnormal glands, two of which were in the neck and three in the mediastinum. Scintigraphy was positive in 26 abnormal glands, out of which 22 were single and four were multiple. Two abnormal glands were missed: one in the neck and one in the mediastinum. Conclusion: As limited neck dissection for primary hyperparathyroidism becomes increasingly popular, USG has been found to be a sensitive, specific, and easily available noninvasive investigation for parathyroid localization. It can be easily offered to patients as a method for preoperative localization prior to limited parathyroid surgery outside tertiary care settings.
  3,169 480 2
Evolutionary trends in radiology assessment: The importance of the learning cycle and its assessment in radiology
Anurag Agarwal, Bipin Batra, AK Sood
October-December 2008, 18(4):272-275
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43833  PMID:19774177
  3,042 363 1
Case Report: Spontaneous aneurysm of ductus arteriosus: A rare cause of hoarseness of voice in adults
Rajesh Gothi, Nitin P Ghonge
October-December 2008, 18(4):322-323
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43853  PMID:19774192
Ortner's syndrome (left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy caused by cardiovascular pathology) is described in literature as occurring secondary to a variety of conditions. Spontaneous aneurysm of ductus arteriosus is a rare cause of this condition. We present a case where an adult patient with an aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus presented for the first time at the age of 62 years with hoarseness of voice secondary to left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy.
  3,025 301 3
Editorial: Mini symposium on obstetric imaging
Milind S Gune, BS Rama Murthy
October-December 2008, 18(4):324-325
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43851  PMID:19774193
  2,782 350 -
We have a problem!
Bhavin Jankharia
October-December 2008, 18(4):271-271
DOI:10.4103/0971-3026.43832  PMID:19774176
  2,613 354 -
Radiologist's liability for an erroneous report due to wrong labeling by juniors/para medics

October-December 2008, 18(4):276-276
Suggested precautions
  1. Consulting radiologist must sign the report after ensuring that the procedure has been performed correctly.
  2. Hospitals/nursing homes must develop and follow proper protocols in radiology and pathology departments to avoid wrong labeling.
  3. During interventions, if the suspected tumor is not found at the suggested place, avoiding further exploration is advisable.
  2,179 306 -
Radiology curriculum
KP Mody
October-December 2008, 18(4):277-278
  1,829 264 -
Editorial, The Practice of Radiology, Ethical Considerations
KP Mody
October-December 2008, 18(4):279-280
  1,511 216 -
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