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THORACIC/ CARDIAC Table of Contents   
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 397-403
Radiological spectrum of anthracofibrosis: A series of 40 patients with computed tomography, bronchoscopy, and biopsy

1 Department of Radiology and Imaging, Max Superspeciality Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pulmonology, Max Superspeciality Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Anandamoyee Dhar
Department of Radiology and Imaging, Max Superspeciality Hospital, New Delhi - 110 017
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijri.IJRI_403_16

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Introduction: Anthracofibrosis is a lesser known clinical entity. Patients present with chronic symptoms of cough and breathlessness with a history of biofuel/wood fire smoke exposure. There are distinct computed tomography (CT) imaging features of anthracofibrosis that can differentiate it from more common conditions such as tuberculosis (TB) and bronchogenic carcinoma. Findings include multifocal noncontiguous stenosis of bronchial tree, calcified enlarged mediastinal or hilar nodes, and secondary lung parenchymal changes. However, in TB, bronchostenosis usually involves a single lobar bronchus in a contiguous manner with trachea and/or major bronchi also being affected. In this study, we highlight the imaging characteristics of anthracofibrosis. Context: The CT findings of anthracofibrosis closely mimic TB and bronchogenic carcinoma, hence we highlight the key imaging features of anthracofibrosis. Aims and Objectives: To identify and describe the CT imaging features of anthracofibrosis and correlate it with bronchoscopic findings. Setting and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, 40 patients were selected who were diagnosed with anthracofibrosis on bronchoscopy and biopsy. However, CT scan records of only 14 patients were available for review. Two radiologists reviewed the scans independently. Results: Most common CT finding was multisegmental noncontiguous bronchostenosis seen in 93% patients mostly involving the right middle lobe. 85% of the cases showed lymph node enlargement involving hilar, peribronchial, and mediastinal nodes. The nodes were calcified in 91.7% of the cases, with 58% showing pressure effect on adjacent bronchi due to nodal enlargement. The next common findings were peribronchial cuffing and bronchial obstruction seen in 57 and 28% of the cases, respectively. Conclusion: The key imaging features of anthracofibrosis on CT are multifocal involvement of bronchi with smooth peribronchial thickening and enlarged calcified lymph nodes.

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