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LETTER TO THE EDITOR  
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 74-75
Heavily T2W 3D-SPACE images for evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid containing spaces


Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

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Date of Web Publication26-Apr-2012
 

How to cite this article:
Algin O, Ozmen E. Heavily T2W 3D-SPACE images for evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid containing spaces. Indian J Radiol Imaging 2012;22:74-5

How to cite this URL:
Algin O, Ozmen E. Heavily T2W 3D-SPACE images for evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid containing spaces. Indian J Radiol Imaging [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Nov 12];22:74-5. Available from: http://www.ijri.org/text.asp?2012/22/1/74/95410
Dear Sir,

We read with great interest the review paper written by Hingwala et al. entitled "Applications of 3D CISS sequence for problem solving in neuroimaging". [1] While we agree with all the statements made by Hingwala et al. about the three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state (3D-CISS) sequence usage, we want to also emphasize the usefulness of a recently developed sequence three-dimensional sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolution (3D-SPACE) that deserves to be comprehensively evaluated.

Recently, with the introduction of 3 T MRI scanners, there has been a significant increase in the quality and spatial resolution of images. [2] 3D-SPACE images are obtained with a different flip-angle (FA) mode technique. It allows volumetric acquisition of the whole brain with thin slices and isotropic voxels within a reasonable time period. [3] Using 3D-SPACE, which is a turbo spin-echo variant, one can obtain heavily T2W images as well as T1W, T2W, or FLAIR images. [4],[5] The most important advantage of this sequence is that it can provide very thin and high-resolution three planes or oblique reformatted slices (such as 0.7 × 0.7 × 0.7 mm) with the help of isotropic acquisition. [3]

In our department, over the last 2 years, we have preferred to obtain heavily T2W 3D-SPACE images for the indications mentioned by Hingwala et al. [1] An important feature of this sequence is that unlike other heavily T2W sequences, it does not create a significant artifact (such as the banding artifact) and, moreover, it enables scanning of the whole brain or the spinal canal with a single acquisition. This is very useful for proper evaluation of the images and helps the radiologist assess the brain and spine comprehensively.

For a better understanding of this technique, we present heavily T2W 3D-SPACE images and the acquisition parameters of the T2W 3D-SPACE images of two patients in [Figure 1] and [Table 1], respectively.
Figure 1: (A-F) Heavily T2W 3D-SPACE images of a 43-year-old man (normal volunteer; A) and 30-year-old man (patient with hydrocephalus and aqueductal stenosis; B-F). Sagittal image of the patient with hydrocephalus demonstrates complete aqueductal stenosis and an aqueductal web (arrow in B). Axial (D) and coronal (F) thin-section (0.8 mm) reformatted images obtained from the sagittal 3D-SPACE images (C and E, respectively) show ventriculomegaly

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Table 1: Acquisition parameters of heavily T2W 3D-SPACE images in our department

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In conclusion, in departments that have 3 T MRI scanners, we recommend that heavily T2W isotropic images be obtained by using a different FA-mode technique (such as 3D-SPACE) for the evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing spaces. There is a need for comprehensive studies to compare the 3D-SPACE technique described above with the other heavily T2W sequences.


   Acknowledgment Top


The authors thank Prof. Dr. Ergin Atalar, the director of National MR Research Center (UMRAM) for the opportunity he provided for 3T MR acquisitions. The authors gratefully acknowledge Musa Kurnaz (MR technician) and Tuna Aydýn (from Siemens Company) for their contributions.

 
   References Top

1.Hingwala D, Chatterjee S, Kesavadas C, Thomas B, Kapilamoorty TR. Applications of 3D CISS sequence for problem solving in neuroimaging. Indian J Radiol Imaging 2011;21:90-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.Algin O, Turkbey B. Intrathecal gadolinium-enhanced MR cisternography: A comprehensive review. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2012. Doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A2899.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Algin O, Turkbey B. Evaluation of aqueductal stenosis by three-dimensional sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions (3D-SPACE) sequence: Preliminary results with 3 Tesla MRI. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2012. Doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A2833.   Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Naganawa S, Kawai H, Sone M, Nakashima T, Ikeda M. Endolympathic hydrops in patients with vestibular schwannoma: Visualization by non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. Neuroradiology 2011;53:1009-15.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Park J, Mugler JP 3 rd , Horger W, Kiefer B. Optimized T1-weighted contrast for single-slab 3D turbo spin-Echo imaging with long echo trains: Application to whole-brain imaging. Magn Reson Med 2007;58:982-92.  Back to cited text no. 5
    

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Correspondence Address:
Oktay Algin
Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-3026.95410

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    Figures

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